Dead Sea Scrolls

The Schøyen Collection has since 1994 acquired 60 Dead Sea Scrolls fragments from 15 different Scrolls plus artefacts from the Essene community that hid this important Jewish library from Roman soldiers in AD 68. The fragments were among those found by the Bedouin in cave 1 in Qumran in late 1946, Cave 4 in 1952, and cave 11 in 1956, and subsequently sold to the dealer Kando in Bethlehem. They were in the hands of private proprietors and were not known to the scholarly community before they became part of The Schøyen Collection. The fragments are dated to the Hasmonaean and Herodian periods (1st c. BC – AD 20), and will be published by myself alongside other collaborators. Two fragments have previously been published in the official DJD series vols. 26 and 38.

This part of the collection includes:

  • Remnants of 10 biblical scrolls (Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 2 Samuel, Psalms, Isaiah, Joel, Daniel). Some of the fragments preserve important textual variants compared to the traditional Hebrew text (the Masoretic text) and the Septuagint. 8 of these scrolls also have part of the earliest text known of the Bible.
  • A fragment of the apocryphal book of Tobit, published in Revue de Qumran 22 (2006).
  • Fragments from some non-biblical scrolls: Rule of Benedictions from the Manual of Discipline Scroll, the Temple Scroll, the Genesis Apocryphon Scroll, and a fragment of a hitherto unknown text.
  • The original cloth wrapper of the Temple Scroll and a stylus found together with the Temple Scroll in cave 11.
  • A small incense altar, and an inkwell of bronze, asserted to have been found by the bedouin at Qumran before the archaeological excavations there.
  • A scroll jar – one of the pottery jars containing scrolls, which were found by the Bedouin in Cave 1 at Qumran late 1946.

The Dead Sea Scrolls from Qumran is the most important textual find of the 20th century. It has ramifications for biblical studies (Old and New Testament) and for the understanding of early Jewish history and tradition.

The Collection

10 items are listed here out of a collection of 60 Dead Sea Scroll fragments from 15 different scrolls, with the scroll jar and inkwell in addition.

Apart from The Schøyen Collection, the Dead Sea Scrolls are represented in six public institutions: Jerusalem: Shrine of the Book, Rockefeller Museum and Franciscan Biblical School; Amman: Archaeological Museum; Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale; Heidelberg: University Library, and at a few other locations.

12.1 Biblical scrolls

    <!–

  • MS 1909 Qumran, 1st c. BC
  • –>

  • MS 1926/1 Qumran, ca. 150-125 BC
  • MS 2861 Qumran, 2nd half of 1st c. BC
    See also MS 4611, Qumran, 30 BC – 68 AD
  • MS 4612/1 Qumran, 30 BC – 68 AD
    See also MS 2713, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – early 1st AD
    See also MS 1926/4, Qumran, ca. 4 BC-68 AD

12.2 Parabiblical scrolls

12.3 Sectarian scrolls

12.4 Inkwells and pens

12.5 Scroll jars and wrappers

12.1 Biblical scrolls

<!–

MS 1909

THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE DEAD SEA SCROLL

BENEDICTIONS 5:22 – 25

ms1909MS in Hebrew on vellum, Qumran, 1st c. BC, 1 fragment of a scroll, 3,3×1,6 cm, 1 partial column, (original column 20×13 cm), part of 4 lines (originally 29 lines), in a formal Hasmonaean Hebrew book script; a fragment, 0,7×0,8 cm, with the offset of the letters Shin and Lamed; 2 uninscribed fragments, 2,0×0,7 cm and 0,5×0,5 cm.

Context: Part of the final benedictions (1QSb=1Q28b) of the scroll originally known as the Manual of Discipline (1QS), also named after its 2nd text, The Rule of the Community (1QSa) or Serekh ha-Yahad. This was one of the 7 scrolls found in Cave 1 at Qumran in June 1947. The Metropolitan, Bishop Athanasius Samuel, took 4 of these scrolls (the Manual of Discipline, the Isaiah A Scroll, the Habakkuk Commentary, and the Genesis Apocryphon), to New York in January 1949 to be sold. They were advertised in the Wall Street Journal on 1 June 1954, bought 1 month later by Yigael Yadin on behalf of the Israeli Government and immediately taken back to Israel. They are now in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The present fragment had either fallen off the scroll in the cave, or while in the possession of Athanasius Samuel.

A further fragment from the bottom of column 7 of 1QS, in The Schøyen Collection, see MS 1926/3. Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments: MSS 1926/12 & 4, 2713 and 2861. There are 10 more fragmentary Rule of the Community scrolls from Cave 4 (4QS255-264).

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (1st c. BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran cave 1 (68-1947); 3. Muhammad Adh-Dhib of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1947); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1947-1948); 5. Syrian orthodox Monastery of St. Mark (Metropolitan Athanasius Samuel), Jerusalem (1948-1973); 6. Dr. William Brownlee, Claremont, California (1973-1983); 7. Louise Brownlee, Claremont, California (1983-1994).

Commentary: The Manual of Discipline/Rule of the Community scroll is one of the most important of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Manual of Discipline is one of the oldest documents of the Essenes. Originally written around 100 BC, it contains the community’s liturgies, statutes, organisation, discipline, and a penal code. The 2nd text, the Rule of the Community, is also known as the Messianic Rule. It is the rule for a community adapted to the requirements of the Messianic war against the nations. The 3rd text, from which the present fragment comes, is a collection of blessings, to be recited by the Master or the Teacher of Righteousness for the ceremony of the institution of the new community. It was intended for the Messianic age. Included in the blessings are the members of the Community, the Messiah of Aaron, the sons of Zadok, the priest, and finally the Prince of the congregation, the Messiah of Israel. This text is unique, not witnessed in any other Dead Sea Scroll.

Published: 1. by George J. Brooke and James M. Robinson: A further fragment of 1QSb: The Schøyen Collection MS 1909, in: Institute for Antiquity and Christianity, Claremont, California, Occasional papers no. 30, Nov. 1994; 2. Journal of Jewish Studies, vol. 46, Nos. 1-2, 1995, pp. 120-133; 3. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXVI, Philip S. Alexander and Geza Vermes: Qumran cave 4, XIX, 1Q28b, pp. 227-233, plate XXIV.

Exhibited: 1. Conference of European National Librarians, Oslo, Sept. 1994. 2. Treasures from the Dead Sea. Manchester museum, 21 October 1997 – 10 January 1998; 3. XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

–>

MS 1926/1

www.schoyencollection.com/dsscrolls.htm

THE GREAT ISAIAH DEAD SEA SCROLL

BIBLE: ISAIAH, UNINSCRIBED FRAGMENTS AND PART OF THE COVER

ms1926/1MS in Hebrew on vellum, Qumran, ca. 150-125 BC, 24 uninscribed fragments, largest 2,8×1,1 cm, from a scroll of 17 membranes, 26×734 cm, 54 columns, 28-32 lines.

Context: Part of the Great Isaiah A Scroll, 1QIsa, now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Of the present MS, 8 fragments, largest 1,1×1,0 cm, come from the lower edge of the scroll; 6 fragments, largest 1,3×0,9 cm, from the cover; 9 fragments, largest 2,8×1,1 cm, are repair vellum; a repair thread, 3,0 cm sewn into a vellum fragment, 2,0×0,4 cm, comes from the lower edge of column XII. In addition there are 8 bits of linen thread from the cloth in which the scroll originally was wrapped. <!–
Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/24, 2713, 2861, 4611, 4612 and 5095/1.–>

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca. 150 BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 1 (68-1947); 3. Muhammad Adh-Dhib of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1947); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1947-48); 5. Syrian orthodox Monastery of St. Mark (Metropolitan Athanasius Samuel), Jerusalem (1948); 6. Gift to John C. Trever, Jerusalem, Claremont and Laguna Hills, California (1948-1994).

Commentary: The Great Isaiah A Scroll is the earliest complete MS of any of the books of the Bible. The vellum cover of the scroll is lost, apart from the present 6 fragments.

Published without the present fragments in: Millar Burrows, John C. Trever and William H. Brownlee: The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery. vol. I, New Haven, The American School of Oriental Research, 1950; and facsimiles in: John C. Trever: Scrolls from Qumran Cave I, Jerusalem, The Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, and Shrine of the Book.

Exhibited: XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

MS 2861

THE JUDGES DEAD SEA SCROLL

BIBLE: JUDGES 4:5 – 6

ms2861MS in Hebrew on brown leather, Qumran, ca. 80-30 BC, 1 fragment from a scroll, 3,0×8,5 cm remaining, part of 1 column, (3,0×8,5 cm), 4 lines in a good Herodian Hebrew book script.

Context: Judges is only represented on fragments from the 3 Dead Sea Scrolls 1QJudg in Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, and 4QJudga+b, in Jerusalem: Rockefeller Museum.
<!–Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/1-4, 2713, 2861 , 4611, 4612 and 5095/1.–>

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (2nd half of 1st c. BC-68 AD); 2.
Qumran Cave 4 (68-1952); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1952-1956); 4. Private collection, Switzerland (1956-1995).

Commentary: The earliest witness to this part of the Bible. The oldest biblical manuscript in private ownership.
Preliminary description based on information from Dr. James H. Charlesworth, who will publish the MS in the DJD series and in the Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project.

See also MS 4611, The Leviticus Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, 30 BC – 68 AD

12 MINOR PROPHETS DEAD SEA SCROLL

ms4612BIBLE: JOEL 4:1 – 4
MS in Hebrew on dark brown leather, Qumran, 30 BC-68 AD, fragment of a scroll, 10×7 cm, part of 1 column, (6,5×5,4 cm), 8 lines in a fine regular Herodian Hebrew book script, upper edge preserved 3,6 cm.

<!–Context: Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/1-4, 2713, 2861 and 4611. see MSS 1909, 1926/1-4, 2713 2861 MS 4611

–>Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (30 BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 4 (68-1952); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1952-1956); 4. Private collection, Switzerland (1956-1995).

Commentary: This is a unique, new scroll, not belonging to any other Joel scrolls. The text is wholly or partly preserved on the following Dead Sea Scrolls: Joel 4:1 – 16: MurXII (DJD II:88) undated, Joel 4:4 – 9: 4QXIIg (DJD XV:82), 30-1 BC, Joel 4:1 – 2: Septuagint 8HevXIIgr (DJD VIII) late 1st c. BC. The present Joel 4:3 will be the 2nd earliest witness to the text if MurXII has an earlier date, but will be the earliest witness, if MurXII has a later date. The leather is so darkened that the text can only be read via infrared photography.

See also MS 2713, The Joshua Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – early 1st AD

See also MS 1926/4, The Daniel B Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, 4 BC-68 AD

12.2 Parabiblical scrolls

MS 5234

TOBIT DEAD SEA SCROLL

ms5234BIBLE: TOBIT 14:4 – 6

MS in Aramaic on papyrus, Qumran, ca. 50 BC, 1 fragment, 6,8×2,1 cm, part of right side of a column, (5,9×1,6 cm), part of 7 lines in a late semiformal Hasmonaean Hebrew book script.

Context: Part of the column next to fragment 8 of 4Qpap.TobitAar=4Q196 (ca. 50 BC). 4QTobitCar=4Q198 (ca. 50 BC) has parts of the same text, both published in DJD XIX, pl. I-VIII.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca 50 BC -68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 4 (68-1956); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1972); 4. American priest, later serving in Switzerland (1972-1995).

<!–Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca. 1-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 4 or 11 (68-1956); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1972); 4. Private collection, Switzerland (1972-2003).

–>Commentary: This MS with the other fragments of 4Q196, is the earliest witness to this part of the Bible. Tobit (or Tobias) was written in the 5th or 4th c. BC, and is an apochryphal book in the Hebrew Bible, but part of the Septuagint. The present text is Tobit’s instructions given when he was at the point of death in Nineveh, to his son Tobias and his seven sons, ordering them to hurry away to Media, as Assyria and Babylonia will not be safe according to the prophets’ of Israel. The present Aramaic text is rather different from the Septuagint, and shorter.
The allocation of this MS to 4Q196 was kindly communicated by Florentino Garcia Martinez.

MS 1926/2

THE GENESIS APOCRYPHON DEAD SEA SCROLL

GENESIS APOCRYPHON, COL. 1, LINES 1 & 2; COL. 2, LINE 1

ms1926/2MS in Aramaic on vellum, Qumran, ca. 4 BC-68 AD, 3 fragments, 2,8×2,5 cm, 2,3×2,9 cm, 1,3×1,0 cm, part of 2+1+2 lines in a Herodian Hebrew book script, from a scroll of 4 membranes, 31×283 cm remaining, 22 columns, ca. 34 lines. Further 2 pieces of contemporary vellum repair material, 3,5×1,1 cm and 3,4×0,6 cm.

Context: Part of the Dead Sea Scroll 1QApocGen, now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The 2 larger fragments from the present MS apparently matches the top of columns I and II. The rest of column I is lost, apart from remnants of the left margin, and fragments from 1Q20. The smallest fragment has not yet been placed.
<!– Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/1, 3-4, 27132861, 4611, 4612 and 5095/1. –>

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca. 4 BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 1 (68-1947); 3. Muhammad Adh-Dhib of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1947); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1947-48); 5. Syrian orthodox Monastery of St. Mark (Metropolitan Athanasius Samuel), Jerusalem (1948); 6. Gift to John C. Trever, Jerusalem, Claremont and Laguna Hills, California (1948-1994).

Commentary: Originally written 1st half of 2nd c. BC, the Genesis Apocryphon is a form of parabiblical literature, which retells the story of parts of Genesis, embellishing it and adding haggadic details. It should probably be called more properly “Book of the Patriarchs”, because it recounts in embellished form the stories of Noah and Abraham. It is related to the kind of literature one finds in the Book of Jubilees. Only one copy has been found of this unique text. This is the earliest Aramaic example of pseudoepigraphic literature that have come down to us, actually copied in the lifetime of Christ and the Apostles.

Published without the present fragments in: Nahman Avigad and Yigael Yadin: A Genesis Apochryphon, Jerusalem, The Magnes Press of the Hebrew University, 1956.
Published by Dr. Bruce Zuckerman and Dr. Marilyn Lundberg in: The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, Newsletter, no. 12, Cincinnati, Ohio, Autumn 1996.

Exhibited: XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

12.3 Sectarian scrolls

See also MS 1909, Manual of Discipline, Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, 1st c. BC

MS 5095/1

THE TEMPLE SCROLL, COLUMNS 2 AND 3

ms5095/1MS in Hebrew on vellum, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – 68 AD, 12 fragments, 5,5×2,9 cm, 3,8×2,0 cm, 4,3×1,3 cm and smaller, part of columns 2 and 3, parts of up to 4 lines each on 2 or more layers sticking together, in a developed formal Herodian Hebrew book script by scribe A, from a scroll of 67 columns, 19 membranes, total length 9 m., Linen cloth from the wrapper sticking to most of the fragments. A piece of linen from the wrapper, 1,2×2,0 cm. 3 fragments with modern thick paper sticking.

Context: The Temple Scroll, with the fragments MSS 5095/1 and 5095/4, the scroll’s linen wrapper MS 5095/2, and a palm leaf pen, MS 5095/3, were found together in a large jar with lid (still in Kando’s shop in Jerusalem), in Cave 11 in 1956. The Temple Scroll is now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (early 1st c. – 68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 11 (68-1956); 3. Bedouins of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1956); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1961); 5. Private collection, Switzerland (gift from Kando) (1961-1980) and heirs.

Commentary: The Temple Scroll is the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with its 9 m. The text was originally written ca. 150 BC, and purports to be the second Torah of the Community of Essenes, giving particularly attention to the way the Temple is to be reconstructed. The purpose of the scroll is to be a New Deuteronomy, a law for the remnant of Israel in the future. With the Manual of Discipline, the most important of the sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls.

12.4 Inkwells and pens

MS 5095/3

QUMRAN STYLUS WITH NATURAL INK GROOVE

ms5095/3Stylus of palm leaf with natural ink groove, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – 68 AD, 8,6×0,9×0,5 cm, dried ink remaining on the tip.

Context: For a Qumran inkwell, see MS 1655/2. The Temple Scroll, with the 12 fragments MS 5095/1, the scroll’s linen wrapper MS 5095/2, and a palm leaf pen, MS 5095/3, were found together in a large jar with lid (still in Kando’s shop in Jerusalem), in Cave 11 in 1956. The Temple Scroll is now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (early 1st c. – 68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 11 (68-1956); 3. Bedouins of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1956); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1961); 5. Private collection, Switzerland (gift from Kando) (1961-1980) and heirs.

Commentary: The only surviving stylus or pen from Qumran.

MS 1655/2

INKWELL FROM THE SCRIPTORIUM OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS, KHIRBET QUMRAN

ms1655/2Bronze inkwell, Khirbet Qumran, before 68 AD, with 2 basket type handles turning opposite direction on the concave top, round corpus, h. 8 cm, diam. 8 cm, with pedestal base, decoration of parallel incised lines around rim and around ink hole. Green patina.

Context: Found 1950 on the Khirbet Qumran site prior to the official excavations, together with a bronze miniature incense altar with 4 protruding horns at the corners, MS 1655/4. 4-5 other inkwells in bronze and clay were found during the excavations at Khirbet Qumran in 1951, 1953 and 1966-67. There exist only 2 more inkwells of the elaborate type of the present item. MS 1987/15 and one published by Nabil I. Khairy, Inkwells of the Roman Period from Jordan, in Levant 12(1980), pp. 155-162, figure 5a and plate 25D.

Provenance:1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (until 68 AD); 2. Khirbet Qumran site (68-1950); 3. Members of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (ca. 1950); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1950-1953; 5. John Marco Allegro, Oxford and Manchester (1953-1963)?; 6. Private Collector, USA (1963-1975); 7. Fayez Barakat, Los Angeles, Cat. VI F.Z. 181(1975); 8. Mathias Komor, New York (1975-); 9. American Collector (-1992); 10. David Goldstein, Los Angeles (1992-1993).

Commentary: One of the inkwells found in Khirbet Qumran, and itcontains remains of a carbon ink (lampblack and gum), of the type used on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The 2 inkwells found in the “scriptorium” were of a plain cylindrical Roman type, another had a single vertical handle, while the present one is much more elaborate in the execution.

Published: Stephen Goranson: Qumran, a hub of scribal activity?, in: Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 20 no. 5 (Sept./Oct. 1994), pp. 36-39. The other Qumran inkwells are widely published by de Vaux, Allegro, Steckoll, Goranson and others.

Exhibited: 1. Treasures from the Dead Sea. Manchester museum, 1997; 2. XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

12.5 Scroll jars and wrappers

MS 5095/2

THE TEMPLE SCROLL WRAPPER

ms5095/2Linen cloth, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – 68 AD, ca. 45×60 cm, the upper edge lacking, in a fine weave of 12×12 S-spun threads pr square cm, the warp and weft of fairly same thickness, the lower edge with border of 2 pairs of thicker parallel threads, 2 cm apart; with stains from the scroll, some tiny black gelatinised vellum fragments stitching. The cord to fasten the wrapper around the scroll, 85 cm long, made from 3 linen threads.

Context: The Temple Scroll, with the 12 fragments MS 5095/1, the scroll’s linen wrapper MS 5095/2, and a palm leaf pen, MS 5095/3, were found together in a large jar with lid (still in Kando’s shop in Jerusalem), in Cave 11 in 1956. The Temple Scroll is now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum. Smaller parts of the wrapper still stick to MS 5095/1. For similar wrappers from Cave 1, see DJD vol. I, Oxford 1955, G.M. Crowfoot: The linen textiles.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (early 1st c. – 68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 11 (68-1956); 3. Bedouins of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1956); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1961); 5. Private collection, Switzerland (gift from Kando) (1961-1980) and heirs.

Commentary: The Temple Scroll is the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with its 9 m. The text was originally written ca. 150 BC, and purports to be the second Torah of the Community of Essenes, giving particularly attention to the way the Temple is to be reconstructed. The purpose of the scroll is to be a New Deuteronomy, a law for the remnant of Israel in the future. With the Manual of Discipline, the most important of the sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls. The common way of keeping books, i.e. scrolls, in the ancient period, was to wrap them up or put them in cases, sometimes both, and then put them in a cupboard. In the later synagogues this cupboard was generally referred to as the Ark of the Law. Representation of it, with the doors open and the ends of the scrolls showing, are seen on Jewish gilt glass vessels found in the catacombs in Roma. To the present day, the Torah is a scroll with a scroll wrapper.

MS 1655/1

DEAD SEA SCROLL JAR FROM QUMRAN

ms16551Pottery jar of cylindrical form (complete), Qumran, before 68 AD, h. 43 cm, diam. 21 cm, flattening sharply at top and bottom to a 15 cm wide collared neck, and a ring base respectively, 3 handles or rather horizontal lugs on the shoulders pierced with holes through which a string could be passed to retain the lid in position, lid now missing.

Context: About 40-50 jars were found in Qumran cave 1, nearly all broken and incomplete. 2 complete jars in The Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 1 in The John Allegro Collection, Manchester, and 1 complete and most of the broken ones at Rockefeller Museum Jerusalem, a few other broken exemplars in museums in Jordan, Western Europe and USA.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (until 68 AD); 2. Qumran cave, probably cave 1 (68- ca. 1948); 3. Members of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (ca. 1948-1952); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (ca. 1952-1953); 5. John Marco Allegro, Oxford and Manchester (1953-1963); 6. Sotheby’s, London 11.11.1963:72; 7. H.M. Serota, Chicago (1963-1987); 8. Fayez Barakat, Los Angeles (1987-1991), Cat. Masterpieces in the Barakat Collection (1989):PF 1123; 9. Leonard Berman, Los Angeles (1991-1992); 10. David Goldstein, Los Angeles (1992-1993).

Commentary: This MS storage jar is mentioned in John Allegro: The Dead Sea Scrolls, Middlesex, Penguin, 1956, p. 77. Illustrated in: The Allegro Qumran Collection. Supplement to the Dead Sea Scrolls on microfiche, Ed.: George J. Brooke, Leiden, E. Brill, 1996, frames 10 (B10-C10), AQ. Pots 9-19, the photos taken 1963 at Prestburg.
The jar was probably found in cave 1, the starting point of the most important and widely published and controversial archaeological MS find of this century. The hoard from 11 caves consists of ca. 16 intact or mainly intact scrolls and between 15,000 and 100,000 fragments from ca. 800 scrolls, containing about 600 different texts in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. The discovery was a break-through for the study of Judaism and of the Old Testament with texts about 1000 years older than the MSS of the 10th c. previously known.

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5 Responses to “Dead Sea Scrolls”

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