Reincarnation???

•November 8, 2007 • 3 Comments
 

     
 
DO YOU BELIEVE in reincarnation? Reincarnation is one of the doctrines, which is being propagated and upheld by other religions that came from different countries, like Buddhism and Hinduism. One of those who taught this doctrine was Chris Butler, a spiritual leader, who is better known as Jagad Guru. At present, this doctrine is adhered to by people who consider themselves as intellectuals. And because of over self-confidence, they have forgotten to listen to the teachings of God. The same thing is true with those who are ignorant about the Holy Scriptures.The concept of reincarnation involves rebirth, transmigration of the soul, and metempsychosis, or the transfer of a soul to different beings. It could be to a human, to an animal, or to a plant. Those who adhere to reincarnation claim that the soul of a man has no beginning and no end. And a soul develops a human form only through fusion of the 4 elements – earth, fire, water, and wind. And from there, it will transfer to different life forms when the person dies. It is also believed that this next life form will depend on his karma, or the result of his deeds in his previous life. Thereby, if a person lived a virtuous, peaceful, and orderly life, he will merit a good karma (as a reward). And in his next life, he will experience abundance, and he will be placed to a much better condition. They say, he will live comfortably when his soul transfers to another body. On the other hand, those who lived in wickedness will be accorded a bad karma as a compensation for the sins that he had committed. He will have a miserable condition in his next body. There is also a possibility that a man, whose ways are beast-like, he will become a beast in his next life.They say that a person’s attachment to the material world and to the different earthly pleasures is one of the reasons behind reincarnation. For example, a person who is fond of surfing, scuba diving, and other water sports, is bound to become a fish, or any water creature, when he reincarnates. And this process, they say, will go on until a soul has completed going through 8,400,000 kinds of existence. This is highly impossible because if we are to respect the field of science that deals with the study of living organisms, there no such thing as 8,400,000 species.There are also those who claim that, a soul will continue migrating to different life forms until the expiration of the earth. And they believe that the world expires every 5,000 years. They say that after 5,000 years a new world will appear, and everything that had happened will transpire once more. And this is a big lie!Do you know that at present, there are structures of earth whose age is about 7,000 years old? This was discovered by an archeologist in Kercado, a place near Carnac, Brittany in western France. Based on the latest manner of carbon dating, the tomb that they found in Kercado was approximately built about 4,650 years after Christ was born. Therefore, today, 1999, these structures would age about 6,649 years old. And this has exceeded the 5,000-year mark, which they say, is the expiration of the earth.

And one more thing, are you aware that scientists had unearthed remains of a woman who lived about 200,000 years ago? This was published in Newsweek magazine in1988. If it is true that the earth expires every 5,000 years, then no fossils of this sort could have been found. The same with the remains in Kercado. This only leads to a definite conclusion that, this belief is not true! And never will it become acceptable to a sensible man who considers archeological facts.

All of these complicated beliefs about reincarnation result out of the people’s ignorance of what actually happens to a person after death. If we are going to use the Bible as our basis, we will find out that, the belief in reincarnation is wrong. According to the Bible, the death of a person means that everything about him also ends, and he will only have to wait for God’s judgment come Judgment Day. This is what Hebrew 9:27 states—

“And as it is appointed unto men once to die; but after this the judgment.”
Please, take not of that. Man is appointed to die but once, not 8,400,000 times. It is not true that a soul may migrate, or transfer, to another being. The Bible said, a person who has passed away no longer knows anything anymore. This is written in Job 7:9-10—

“As the cloud is consumed and vanisheth away: so he that goeth down to the grave shall come up no more. He shall return no more to his house, neither shall his place know him anymore.”

It is true that the Bible teaches us a particular rebirth, but this does not refer to reincarnation, because reincarnation literally means, being reborn in the flesh. What the Bible is referring to is, being born again of water and of spirit. This is what John 3:3-5 says—

“Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus said unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? Can he enter the second time into his mother’s womb, and be born? Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and the spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God.”

This is a spiritual rebirth, and this refers to baptism. According to Titus 3:5—

“Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.”

The Bible calls it “the washing of regeneration.” Acts 22:16 says—

“And now why tarriest thou? Arise, and be baptized, and wash away thy sins, calling on the name of the Lord.”

Therefore, being born again, or being reborn, means to undergo baptism and to lead a new and better life.

It is also impossible that a soul of a person simply transfers from one being to another. If it is true, there wouldn’t be any way for the souls to increase in number. Originally, there was but a single soul that God created. This can be read in I Corinthians 15:45—

“And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.”

From one man, the souls, or the men, have multiplied in number. If reincarnation is true, then, the number of souls should not have increased. But it is the opposite of what is true today. Do you know that at present, there are about five billion, seven hundred million (5.7 B) people living on earth? And if the world population projection will come to pass, by the year 2000, the world’s population would be about 6.2 billion, and it will continue to grow bigger.

If you believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, the Great Teacher who was sent by God from heaven, we must never believe in reincarnation because our Lord Jesus Christ did not teach this doctrine to the Apostles. Reincarnation is not true, and this is against the teachings in the Gospel. But nevertheless, we leave everything to your judgment.

IF YOU HAVE QUESTION TO ASK REGARDING FAITH OR ANYTHING!

YOU BETTER ASK BROTHER ELISEO F. SORIANO KNOWN AS

THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL AND SENSIBLE PREACHER IN OUR TIMEaskbroeli_podcast2-final_4wp2final2copyright.jpg

These are the steps to tune in to the podcast:

1. log on to www.talkshoe.com

2. create your own account

3. after installing the talkshoe software, click “LIVE NOW” tab

4. look for Brother Eli’s podcast entitled “The Brother Eli Soriano Truth Pod

5. click on “listen, chat, and talk”

*please be advised that it is a must that everyone who will be calling in the podshow should be wearing a headset to avoid feedbacks and echoes.

How wrong Darwin’s theory?

•October 31, 2007 • 1 Comment


 

 

A typical satire was the later caricature in Hornet magazine portraying Darwin with an ape body and the bushy beard he grew in 1866.

At the beginning of the 20th century many important scientific developments occurred, each of them proving how wrong Darwin’s theory was.

In the 1900s, the science of genetics was born, and shortly afterwards the structure of genes and chromosomes was discovered.


The various components that make up a cell

In 1955, James Watson and Francis Crick demonstrated the structure of the DNA molecule. To explain DNA briefly:


Francis Crick & James Watson

In the nucleus of every cell in your body, there is a DNA molecule, containing all the information about your body. The color of your hair and your eyes, information about your internal organs, your external appearance, your height, and all your other characteristics are all encoded in your DNA. To understand how much information is contained in DNA, consider this comparison:

If you wrote down the information in one DNA molecule, it would fill a library of 900 volumes of 500 pages each. To house these encyclopedias, you would need a library as long as a football field. This much information, invisible to us, is contained in one single molecule.

DNA proves that cells could not have come into being by chance. This is one of the countless clear proofs of God’s existence.

We have mentioned just a few of the developments that occurred in the last century. Every branch of science separately affirms the invalidity of evolution. Despite this, evolutionists continue to cling to Darwin’s “explanations.” They even add new fabrications to the old ones. But these will still not make Darwin’s famous barrel experiment work, because evolutionists still do not think scientifically. They do not accept the fact that the Almighty God created all living things.

Very well, what has changed in Darwin’s theory in the meantime? Let’s look at a conversation between scientists who believe in the evolutionist myth, and those who don’t:

Scientist 1: Darwin’s resources were limited. In his day science was at a very low level. He could not prove evolution under those conditions.

Scientist 2: Maybe we can do what he couldn’t. We will prove that a cell can come into existence by chance.

Scientist 3: I don’t agree. No living creature will come out of your cherished barrel.

Scientist 1: Our laboratories are filled with high-tech instruments. Now we know more about living things. We have discovered the structure of cells. Perhaps human beings will soon produce a living thing.

Scientist 2: Let’s try it again.

Scientist 3: You’re wrong. People who think like you have been waiting by their barrels for a hundred years. You can wait for hundreds of years more, but still nothing will happen. Remember, Darwin didn’t get the results he wanted.

Scientist 1: Why not give it a try? We might succeed.

Scientist 2: Let’s see what happens.

Scientist 3: No! You can wait a million years, but nothing will happen. To create life, it isn’t enough to assemble all the elements in living things. Only God creates and gives life.

After their conversation, the three scientists make a decision.

Scientist 3: Alright, we have many more resources than Darwin had; let’s use them all and do an experiment. You will see the results, and maybe then you will accept the truth.

Scientist 1: OK.

Scientist 2: Let’s get started.

And they try the experiment again . . .

Scientist 1: There, I’ve made a mixture of gasses that I think were in the Earth’s primal atmosphere.

Scientist 2: I’ve made an artificial source of electrical discharge.

Scientist 1: Let’s boil the gas mixture at 100 degrees Centigrade for a week.

Scientist 2: Let’s apply a continuous electrical charge to the mixture. That may work better.

An electrical charge is applied to the mixture and it is heated constantly. What will be the result?

Scientist 1: It’s been a week. Let’s put some of the mixture in a test tube.

Scientist 2: But there are no test tubes in nature. . . !

Scientist 1: Never mind. We can’t do it any other way. It will just be a little deception.

Scientist 2: Alright. You’re very sly. Let’s see if it will work.

The scientists are amazed when they examine the mixture. There is still no cell.

Scientist 1: I don’t believe it; it still didn’t work.

Scientist 2: We’ve done everything. How could it not work?

Scientist 1: We have all the resources and we’ve tried everything but we couldn’t produce a single cell.

Scientist 2: Come on, let’s give up.

Like Darwin’s dream, the dream of these scientists also comes to an end.

Scientist 3: You see? I told you so. Inanimate matter cannot create life by itself. This is only a deception devised by some people that don’t believe in God.

Scientist 1(stubbornly): By the 21st century we will be proven right.

Scientist 2: Maybe we have failed so far. But soon we will do it; you will see.

Scientist 3: Gentlemen. It’s not possible; admit it. To prove the theory of evolution, you’ve added things to your experiment that do not exist under natural conditions. But you turned a blind eye to that. You had every resource at your disposal. And you carried out the whole experiment according to your own planned program.

Scientist 1: Yes, so what?

Scientist 3: You made a plan and did the experiment. You didn’t leave the experiment to chance; you calculated every stage of it. But, as you know, inanimate matter cannot decide to combine and then implement it. You did that and you failed. And you can wait a few weeks or a few years, but you still won’t be able to do it. You can bequeath this experiment to those who come after you for thousands or even millions of years but you will never be able to bring a perfectly formed living thing out of that barrel.

Since you have not been successful in this experiment in spite of all your plans and technological resources, how can you expect that living beings could be formed out of unconscious matter?

For living things to come into being, there must first of all be a delicate and precise measurement of the necessary elements and a superior knowledge to direct and assemble them. These are found in the infinite intelligence of the Almighty Lord. Living things did not come into being by themselves, but were created by God, the Lord of all the worlds.

All the followers of Darwin up to the present time have been proven wrong. But some among them have not still lost their belief in the barrel. The most noted evolutionists have all waited patiently, hopefully, expectantly around this barrel.

Let’s now look at the situation in which two evolutionist scientists find themselves.

Evolutionist 1: How can this be? Why has no living thing emerged? We’re trying everything.

Evolutionist 2: What answer can we give to the creationists? All the scientific research has shown them to be right.

Evolutionist 1: No matter what, we can’t accept creation. People must not think that people who believe in God are right. We’ll have to keep up the lie; there’s no other choice.

These scientists can’t obtain any results, either.

Now, we’ll introduce you to one of the cells that make up your body.

Hi! I’m a cell. There are about a hundred trillion of my friends, making up your body. We form you by dividing in your mother’s womb. We play a part in every activity you do throughout your whole life. We work for you every time you breathe, walk, eat, digest, see and feel. Inside us we have energy producing power stations, transportation systems to move products from one area to another, pipelines, information banks containing data about all the products and laboratories.

We are made up of numerous proteins, not one of which can come into being by chance. So, we did not come into existence by chance, either. How could this marvelous system come into being by chance with its factories, information banks, laboratories, energy centers and transportation systems? Of course, it couldn’t.

Now let’s read what some famous scientists have said about the impossibility of life emerging by chance:

The chance that higher life forms might have emerged in this way is comparable with the chance that a tornado sweeping through a junk-yard might assemble a Boeing 747 from the materials therein. —Sir Fred Hoyle


Sir Fred Hoyle

The most elementary type of cell constitutes a “mechanism” unimaginably more complex than any machine yet thought up, let alone constructed, by man. —W.H. Thorpe

Some scientists are aware of the miracle of cells. They acknowledge that life cannot come into being from inanimate matter. Darwin the barrel-mixer and evolutionists have made several false claims about cells and living things. But now you know very well that it is Almighty God Who created everything. that God created a cell from nothing and commanded it to divide in your mother’s uterus. He created living beings from such cells. The flowers, birds, fish, fruits and beautiful array of living things created from cells are just one proof of God’s supreme artistry.

In his theory, Darwin proposed that living things came into being by chance out of inanimate matter. But don’t forget: one living thing must already exist in order for another living thing to emerge. Your mother and father are living beings, as are their mothers and fathers. This life has continued to be passed on from the very first human being, Adam (peace be upon him). And the One Who created Adam is Almighty God, the Lord of all life. Never in history has any living being come into existence from inanimate matter. Evidence from modern science has proved once again that God created living beings. But Darwin and his followers didn’t want to accept this fact; they were too concerned about their own importance and didn’t want to believe in God’s existence. They chose to deceive people with their “explanations.” The theory of evolution is based on lies and there is not the slightest proof to support it. This book was written to show you that evolutionists are in a hopeless situation, and that the theory of evolution is a lie.

 

IF YOU HAVE QUESTION TO ASK REGARDING FAITH OR ANYTHING!

YOU BETTER ASK BROTHER ELISEO F. SORIANO KNOWN AS

THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL AND SENSIBLE PREACHER IN OUR TIMEaskbroeli_podcast2-final_4wp2final2copyright.jpg

These are the steps to tune in to the podcast:

1. log on to www.talkshoe.com

2. create your own account

3. after installing the talkshoe software, click “LIVE NOW” tab

4. look for Brother Eli’s podcast entitled “The Brother Eli Soriano Truth Pod

5. click on “listen, chat, and talk”

*please be advised that it is a must that everyone who will be calling in the podshow should be wearing a headset to avoid feedbacks and echoes.

 

Dead Sea Scrolls

•October 30, 2007 • 5 Comments

The Schøyen Collection has since 1994 acquired 60 Dead Sea Scrolls fragments from 15 different Scrolls plus artefacts from the Essene community that hid this important Jewish library from Roman soldiers in AD 68. The fragments were among those found by the Bedouin in cave 1 in Qumran in late 1946, Cave 4 in 1952, and cave 11 in 1956, and subsequently sold to the dealer Kando in Bethlehem. They were in the hands of private proprietors and were not known to the scholarly community before they became part of The Schøyen Collection. The fragments are dated to the Hasmonaean and Herodian periods (1st c. BC – AD 20), and will be published by myself alongside other collaborators. Two fragments have previously been published in the official DJD series vols. 26 and 38.

This part of the collection includes:

  • Remnants of 10 biblical scrolls (Exodus, Leviticus, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 2 Samuel, Psalms, Isaiah, Joel, Daniel). Some of the fragments preserve important textual variants compared to the traditional Hebrew text (the Masoretic text) and the Septuagint. 8 of these scrolls also have part of the earliest text known of the Bible.
  • A fragment of the apocryphal book of Tobit, published in Revue de Qumran 22 (2006).
  • Fragments from some non-biblical scrolls: Rule of Benedictions from the Manual of Discipline Scroll, the Temple Scroll, the Genesis Apocryphon Scroll, and a fragment of a hitherto unknown text.
  • The original cloth wrapper of the Temple Scroll and a stylus found together with the Temple Scroll in cave 11.
  • A small incense altar, and an inkwell of bronze, asserted to have been found by the bedouin at Qumran before the archaeological excavations there.
  • A scroll jar – one of the pottery jars containing scrolls, which were found by the Bedouin in Cave 1 at Qumran late 1946.

The Dead Sea Scrolls from Qumran is the most important textual find of the 20th century. It has ramifications for biblical studies (Old and New Testament) and for the understanding of early Jewish history and tradition.

The Collection

10 items are listed here out of a collection of 60 Dead Sea Scroll fragments from 15 different scrolls, with the scroll jar and inkwell in addition.

Apart from The Schøyen Collection, the Dead Sea Scrolls are represented in six public institutions: Jerusalem: Shrine of the Book, Rockefeller Museum and Franciscan Biblical School; Amman: Archaeological Museum; Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale; Heidelberg: University Library, and at a few other locations.

12.1 Biblical scrolls

    <!–

  • MS 1909 Qumran, 1st c. BC
  • –>

  • MS 1926/1 Qumran, ca. 150-125 BC
  • MS 2861 Qumran, 2nd half of 1st c. BC
    See also MS 4611, Qumran, 30 BC – 68 AD
  • MS 4612/1 Qumran, 30 BC – 68 AD
    See also MS 2713, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – early 1st AD
    See also MS 1926/4, Qumran, ca. 4 BC-68 AD

12.2 Parabiblical scrolls

12.3 Sectarian scrolls

12.4 Inkwells and pens

12.5 Scroll jars and wrappers

12.1 Biblical scrolls

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MS 1909

THE MANUAL OF DISCIPLINE DEAD SEA SCROLL

BENEDICTIONS 5:22 – 25

ms1909MS in Hebrew on vellum, Qumran, 1st c. BC, 1 fragment of a scroll, 3,3×1,6 cm, 1 partial column, (original column 20×13 cm), part of 4 lines (originally 29 lines), in a formal Hasmonaean Hebrew book script; a fragment, 0,7×0,8 cm, with the offset of the letters Shin and Lamed; 2 uninscribed fragments, 2,0×0,7 cm and 0,5×0,5 cm.

Context: Part of the final benedictions (1QSb=1Q28b) of the scroll originally known as the Manual of Discipline (1QS), also named after its 2nd text, The Rule of the Community (1QSa) or Serekh ha-Yahad. This was one of the 7 scrolls found in Cave 1 at Qumran in June 1947. The Metropolitan, Bishop Athanasius Samuel, took 4 of these scrolls (the Manual of Discipline, the Isaiah A Scroll, the Habakkuk Commentary, and the Genesis Apocryphon), to New York in January 1949 to be sold. They were advertised in the Wall Street Journal on 1 June 1954, bought 1 month later by Yigael Yadin on behalf of the Israeli Government and immediately taken back to Israel. They are now in the Shrine of the Book at the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. The present fragment had either fallen off the scroll in the cave, or while in the possession of Athanasius Samuel.

A further fragment from the bottom of column 7 of 1QS, in The Schøyen Collection, see MS 1926/3. Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments: MSS 1926/12 & 4, 2713 and 2861. There are 10 more fragmentary Rule of the Community scrolls from Cave 4 (4QS255-264).

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (1st c. BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran cave 1 (68-1947); 3. Muhammad Adh-Dhib of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1947); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1947-1948); 5. Syrian orthodox Monastery of St. Mark (Metropolitan Athanasius Samuel), Jerusalem (1948-1973); 6. Dr. William Brownlee, Claremont, California (1973-1983); 7. Louise Brownlee, Claremont, California (1983-1994).

Commentary: The Manual of Discipline/Rule of the Community scroll is one of the most important of the Dead Sea Scrolls. The Manual of Discipline is one of the oldest documents of the Essenes. Originally written around 100 BC, it contains the community’s liturgies, statutes, organisation, discipline, and a penal code. The 2nd text, the Rule of the Community, is also known as the Messianic Rule. It is the rule for a community adapted to the requirements of the Messianic war against the nations. The 3rd text, from which the present fragment comes, is a collection of blessings, to be recited by the Master or the Teacher of Righteousness for the ceremony of the institution of the new community. It was intended for the Messianic age. Included in the blessings are the members of the Community, the Messiah of Aaron, the sons of Zadok, the priest, and finally the Prince of the congregation, the Messiah of Israel. This text is unique, not witnessed in any other Dead Sea Scroll.

Published: 1. by George J. Brooke and James M. Robinson: A further fragment of 1QSb: The Schøyen Collection MS 1909, in: Institute for Antiquity and Christianity, Claremont, California, Occasional papers no. 30, Nov. 1994; 2. Journal of Jewish Studies, vol. 46, Nos. 1-2, 1995, pp. 120-133; 3. Discoveries in the Judaean Desert, XXVI, Philip S. Alexander and Geza Vermes: Qumran cave 4, XIX, 1Q28b, pp. 227-233, plate XXIV.

Exhibited: 1. Conference of European National Librarians, Oslo, Sept. 1994. 2. Treasures from the Dead Sea. Manchester museum, 21 October 1997 – 10 January 1998; 3. XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

–>

MS 1926/1

www.schoyencollection.com/dsscrolls.htm

THE GREAT ISAIAH DEAD SEA SCROLL

BIBLE: ISAIAH, UNINSCRIBED FRAGMENTS AND PART OF THE COVER

ms1926/1MS in Hebrew on vellum, Qumran, ca. 150-125 BC, 24 uninscribed fragments, largest 2,8×1,1 cm, from a scroll of 17 membranes, 26×734 cm, 54 columns, 28-32 lines.

Context: Part of the Great Isaiah A Scroll, 1QIsa, now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. Of the present MS, 8 fragments, largest 1,1×1,0 cm, come from the lower edge of the scroll; 6 fragments, largest 1,3×0,9 cm, from the cover; 9 fragments, largest 2,8×1,1 cm, are repair vellum; a repair thread, 3,0 cm sewn into a vellum fragment, 2,0×0,4 cm, comes from the lower edge of column XII. In addition there are 8 bits of linen thread from the cloth in which the scroll originally was wrapped. <!–
Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/24, 2713, 2861, 4611, 4612 and 5095/1.–>

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca. 150 BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 1 (68-1947); 3. Muhammad Adh-Dhib of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1947); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1947-48); 5. Syrian orthodox Monastery of St. Mark (Metropolitan Athanasius Samuel), Jerusalem (1948); 6. Gift to John C. Trever, Jerusalem, Claremont and Laguna Hills, California (1948-1994).

Commentary: The Great Isaiah A Scroll is the earliest complete MS of any of the books of the Bible. The vellum cover of the scroll is lost, apart from the present 6 fragments.

Published without the present fragments in: Millar Burrows, John C. Trever and William H. Brownlee: The Dead Sea Scrolls of St. Mark’s Monastery. vol. I, New Haven, The American School of Oriental Research, 1950; and facsimiles in: John C. Trever: Scrolls from Qumran Cave I, Jerusalem, The Albright Institute of Archaeological Research, and Shrine of the Book.

Exhibited: XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

MS 2861

THE JUDGES DEAD SEA SCROLL

BIBLE: JUDGES 4:5 – 6

ms2861MS in Hebrew on brown leather, Qumran, ca. 80-30 BC, 1 fragment from a scroll, 3,0×8,5 cm remaining, part of 1 column, (3,0×8,5 cm), 4 lines in a good Herodian Hebrew book script.

Context: Judges is only represented on fragments from the 3 Dead Sea Scrolls 1QJudg in Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale, and 4QJudga+b, in Jerusalem: Rockefeller Museum.
<!–Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/1-4, 2713, 2861 , 4611, 4612 and 5095/1.–>

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (2nd half of 1st c. BC-68 AD); 2.
Qumran Cave 4 (68-1952); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1952-1956); 4. Private collection, Switzerland (1956-1995).

Commentary: The earliest witness to this part of the Bible. The oldest biblical manuscript in private ownership.
Preliminary description based on information from Dr. James H. Charlesworth, who will publish the MS in the DJD series and in the Princeton Theological Seminary Dead Sea Scrolls Project.

See also MS 4611, The Leviticus Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, 30 BC – 68 AD

12 MINOR PROPHETS DEAD SEA SCROLL

ms4612BIBLE: JOEL 4:1 – 4
MS in Hebrew on dark brown leather, Qumran, 30 BC-68 AD, fragment of a scroll, 10×7 cm, part of 1 column, (6,5×5,4 cm), 8 lines in a fine regular Herodian Hebrew book script, upper edge preserved 3,6 cm.

<!–Context: Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/1-4, 2713, 2861 and 4611. see MSS 1909, 1926/1-4, 2713 2861 MS 4611

–>Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (30 BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 4 (68-1952); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1952-1956); 4. Private collection, Switzerland (1956-1995).

Commentary: This is a unique, new scroll, not belonging to any other Joel scrolls. The text is wholly or partly preserved on the following Dead Sea Scrolls: Joel 4:1 – 16: MurXII (DJD II:88) undated, Joel 4:4 – 9: 4QXIIg (DJD XV:82), 30-1 BC, Joel 4:1 – 2: Septuagint 8HevXIIgr (DJD VIII) late 1st c. BC. The present Joel 4:3 will be the 2nd earliest witness to the text if MurXII has an earlier date, but will be the earliest witness, if MurXII has a later date. The leather is so darkened that the text can only be read via infrared photography.

See also MS 2713, The Joshua Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – early 1st AD

See also MS 1926/4, The Daniel B Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, 4 BC-68 AD

12.2 Parabiblical scrolls

MS 5234

TOBIT DEAD SEA SCROLL

ms5234BIBLE: TOBIT 14:4 – 6

MS in Aramaic on papyrus, Qumran, ca. 50 BC, 1 fragment, 6,8×2,1 cm, part of right side of a column, (5,9×1,6 cm), part of 7 lines in a late semiformal Hasmonaean Hebrew book script.

Context: Part of the column next to fragment 8 of 4Qpap.TobitAar=4Q196 (ca. 50 BC). 4QTobitCar=4Q198 (ca. 50 BC) has parts of the same text, both published in DJD XIX, pl. I-VIII.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca 50 BC -68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 4 (68-1956); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1972); 4. American priest, later serving in Switzerland (1972-1995).

<!–Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca. 1-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 4 or 11 (68-1956); 3. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1972); 4. Private collection, Switzerland (1972-2003).

–>Commentary: This MS with the other fragments of 4Q196, is the earliest witness to this part of the Bible. Tobit (or Tobias) was written in the 5th or 4th c. BC, and is an apochryphal book in the Hebrew Bible, but part of the Septuagint. The present text is Tobit’s instructions given when he was at the point of death in Nineveh, to his son Tobias and his seven sons, ordering them to hurry away to Media, as Assyria and Babylonia will not be safe according to the prophets’ of Israel. The present Aramaic text is rather different from the Septuagint, and shorter.
The allocation of this MS to 4Q196 was kindly communicated by Florentino Garcia Martinez.

MS 1926/2

THE GENESIS APOCRYPHON DEAD SEA SCROLL

GENESIS APOCRYPHON, COL. 1, LINES 1 & 2; COL. 2, LINE 1

ms1926/2MS in Aramaic on vellum, Qumran, ca. 4 BC-68 AD, 3 fragments, 2,8×2,5 cm, 2,3×2,9 cm, 1,3×1,0 cm, part of 2+1+2 lines in a Herodian Hebrew book script, from a scroll of 4 membranes, 31×283 cm remaining, 22 columns, ca. 34 lines. Further 2 pieces of contemporary vellum repair material, 3,5×1,1 cm and 3,4×0,6 cm.

Context: Part of the Dead Sea Scroll 1QApocGen, now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The 2 larger fragments from the present MS apparently matches the top of columns I and II. The rest of column I is lost, apart from remnants of the left margin, and fragments from 1Q20. The smallest fragment has not yet been placed.
<!– Further Dead Sea Scroll fragments in The Schøyen Collection, see MSS 1909, 1926/1, 3-4, 27132861, 4611, 4612 and 5095/1. –>

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (ca. 4 BC-68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 1 (68-1947); 3. Muhammad Adh-Dhib of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1947); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1947-48); 5. Syrian orthodox Monastery of St. Mark (Metropolitan Athanasius Samuel), Jerusalem (1948); 6. Gift to John C. Trever, Jerusalem, Claremont and Laguna Hills, California (1948-1994).

Commentary: Originally written 1st half of 2nd c. BC, the Genesis Apocryphon is a form of parabiblical literature, which retells the story of parts of Genesis, embellishing it and adding haggadic details. It should probably be called more properly “Book of the Patriarchs”, because it recounts in embellished form the stories of Noah and Abraham. It is related to the kind of literature one finds in the Book of Jubilees. Only one copy has been found of this unique text. This is the earliest Aramaic example of pseudoepigraphic literature that have come down to us, actually copied in the lifetime of Christ and the Apostles.

Published without the present fragments in: Nahman Avigad and Yigael Yadin: A Genesis Apochryphon, Jerusalem, The Magnes Press of the Hebrew University, 1956.
Published by Dr. Bruce Zuckerman and Dr. Marilyn Lundberg in: The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon, Newsletter, no. 12, Cincinnati, Ohio, Autumn 1996.

Exhibited: XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

12.3 Sectarian scrolls

See also MS 1909, Manual of Discipline, Dead Sea Scroll, Qumran, 1st c. BC

MS 5095/1

THE TEMPLE SCROLL, COLUMNS 2 AND 3

ms5095/1MS in Hebrew on vellum, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – 68 AD, 12 fragments, 5,5×2,9 cm, 3,8×2,0 cm, 4,3×1,3 cm and smaller, part of columns 2 and 3, parts of up to 4 lines each on 2 or more layers sticking together, in a developed formal Herodian Hebrew book script by scribe A, from a scroll of 67 columns, 19 membranes, total length 9 m., Linen cloth from the wrapper sticking to most of the fragments. A piece of linen from the wrapper, 1,2×2,0 cm. 3 fragments with modern thick paper sticking.

Context: The Temple Scroll, with the fragments MSS 5095/1 and 5095/4, the scroll’s linen wrapper MS 5095/2, and a palm leaf pen, MS 5095/3, were found together in a large jar with lid (still in Kando’s shop in Jerusalem), in Cave 11 in 1956. The Temple Scroll is now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (early 1st c. – 68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 11 (68-1956); 3. Bedouins of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1956); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1961); 5. Private collection, Switzerland (gift from Kando) (1961-1980) and heirs.

Commentary: The Temple Scroll is the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with its 9 m. The text was originally written ca. 150 BC, and purports to be the second Torah of the Community of Essenes, giving particularly attention to the way the Temple is to be reconstructed. The purpose of the scroll is to be a New Deuteronomy, a law for the remnant of Israel in the future. With the Manual of Discipline, the most important of the sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls.

12.4 Inkwells and pens

MS 5095/3

QUMRAN STYLUS WITH NATURAL INK GROOVE

ms5095/3Stylus of palm leaf with natural ink groove, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – 68 AD, 8,6×0,9×0,5 cm, dried ink remaining on the tip.

Context: For a Qumran inkwell, see MS 1655/2. The Temple Scroll, with the 12 fragments MS 5095/1, the scroll’s linen wrapper MS 5095/2, and a palm leaf pen, MS 5095/3, were found together in a large jar with lid (still in Kando’s shop in Jerusalem), in Cave 11 in 1956. The Temple Scroll is now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (early 1st c. – 68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 11 (68-1956); 3. Bedouins of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1956); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1961); 5. Private collection, Switzerland (gift from Kando) (1961-1980) and heirs.

Commentary: The only surviving stylus or pen from Qumran.

MS 1655/2

INKWELL FROM THE SCRIPTORIUM OF THE DEAD SEA SCROLLS, KHIRBET QUMRAN

ms1655/2Bronze inkwell, Khirbet Qumran, before 68 AD, with 2 basket type handles turning opposite direction on the concave top, round corpus, h. 8 cm, diam. 8 cm, with pedestal base, decoration of parallel incised lines around rim and around ink hole. Green patina.

Context: Found 1950 on the Khirbet Qumran site prior to the official excavations, together with a bronze miniature incense altar with 4 protruding horns at the corners, MS 1655/4. 4-5 other inkwells in bronze and clay were found during the excavations at Khirbet Qumran in 1951, 1953 and 1966-67. There exist only 2 more inkwells of the elaborate type of the present item. MS 1987/15 and one published by Nabil I. Khairy, Inkwells of the Roman Period from Jordan, in Levant 12(1980), pp. 155-162, figure 5a and plate 25D.

Provenance:1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (until 68 AD); 2. Khirbet Qumran site (68-1950); 3. Members of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (ca. 1950); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1950-1953; 5. John Marco Allegro, Oxford and Manchester (1953-1963)?; 6. Private Collector, USA (1963-1975); 7. Fayez Barakat, Los Angeles, Cat. VI F.Z. 181(1975); 8. Mathias Komor, New York (1975-); 9. American Collector (-1992); 10. David Goldstein, Los Angeles (1992-1993).

Commentary: One of the inkwells found in Khirbet Qumran, and itcontains remains of a carbon ink (lampblack and gum), of the type used on the Dead Sea Scrolls.
The 2 inkwells found in the “scriptorium” were of a plain cylindrical Roman type, another had a single vertical handle, while the present one is much more elaborate in the execution.

Published: Stephen Goranson: Qumran, a hub of scribal activity?, in: Biblical Archaeology Review, vol. 20 no. 5 (Sept./Oct. 1994), pp. 36-39. The other Qumran inkwells are widely published by de Vaux, Allegro, Steckoll, Goranson and others.

Exhibited: 1. Treasures from the Dead Sea. Manchester museum, 1997; 2. XVI Congress of the International Organization for the study of the Old Testament. Faculty of Law Library, University of Oslo, 29 July – 7 August 1998.

12.5 Scroll jars and wrappers

MS 5095/2

THE TEMPLE SCROLL WRAPPER

ms5095/2Linen cloth, Qumran, late 1st c. BC – 68 AD, ca. 45×60 cm, the upper edge lacking, in a fine weave of 12×12 S-spun threads pr square cm, the warp and weft of fairly same thickness, the lower edge with border of 2 pairs of thicker parallel threads, 2 cm apart; with stains from the scroll, some tiny black gelatinised vellum fragments stitching. The cord to fasten the wrapper around the scroll, 85 cm long, made from 3 linen threads.

Context: The Temple Scroll, with the 12 fragments MS 5095/1, the scroll’s linen wrapper MS 5095/2, and a palm leaf pen, MS 5095/3, were found together in a large jar with lid (still in Kando’s shop in Jerusalem), in Cave 11 in 1956. The Temple Scroll is now in Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum. Smaller parts of the wrapper still stick to MS 5095/1. For similar wrappers from Cave 1, see DJD vol. I, Oxford 1955, G.M. Crowfoot: The linen textiles.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (early 1st c. – 68 AD); 2. Qumran Cave 11 (68-1956); 3. Bedouins of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (1956); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (1956-1961); 5. Private collection, Switzerland (gift from Kando) (1961-1980) and heirs.

Commentary: The Temple Scroll is the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls, with its 9 m. The text was originally written ca. 150 BC, and purports to be the second Torah of the Community of Essenes, giving particularly attention to the way the Temple is to be reconstructed. The purpose of the scroll is to be a New Deuteronomy, a law for the remnant of Israel in the future. With the Manual of Discipline, the most important of the sectarian Dead Sea Scrolls. The common way of keeping books, i.e. scrolls, in the ancient period, was to wrap them up or put them in cases, sometimes both, and then put them in a cupboard. In the later synagogues this cupboard was generally referred to as the Ark of the Law. Representation of it, with the doors open and the ends of the scrolls showing, are seen on Jewish gilt glass vessels found in the catacombs in Roma. To the present day, the Torah is a scroll with a scroll wrapper.

MS 1655/1

DEAD SEA SCROLL JAR FROM QUMRAN

ms16551Pottery jar of cylindrical form (complete), Qumran, before 68 AD, h. 43 cm, diam. 21 cm, flattening sharply at top and bottom to a 15 cm wide collared neck, and a ring base respectively, 3 handles or rather horizontal lugs on the shoulders pierced with holes through which a string could be passed to retain the lid in position, lid now missing.

Context: About 40-50 jars were found in Qumran cave 1, nearly all broken and incomplete. 2 complete jars in The Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, 1 in The John Allegro Collection, Manchester, and 1 complete and most of the broken ones at Rockefeller Museum Jerusalem, a few other broken exemplars in museums in Jordan, Western Europe and USA.

Provenance: 1. Community of the Essenes, Qumran (until 68 AD); 2. Qumran cave, probably cave 1 (68- ca. 1948); 3. Members of the Ta’amireh tribe, Judaean desert (ca. 1948-1952); 4. Khalil Iskander Shahin (“Kando”), Bethlehem (ca. 1952-1953); 5. John Marco Allegro, Oxford and Manchester (1953-1963); 6. Sotheby’s, London 11.11.1963:72; 7. H.M. Serota, Chicago (1963-1987); 8. Fayez Barakat, Los Angeles (1987-1991), Cat. Masterpieces in the Barakat Collection (1989):PF 1123; 9. Leonard Berman, Los Angeles (1991-1992); 10. David Goldstein, Los Angeles (1992-1993).

Commentary: This MS storage jar is mentioned in John Allegro: The Dead Sea Scrolls, Middlesex, Penguin, 1956, p. 77. Illustrated in: The Allegro Qumran Collection. Supplement to the Dead Sea Scrolls on microfiche, Ed.: George J. Brooke, Leiden, E. Brill, 1996, frames 10 (B10-C10), AQ. Pots 9-19, the photos taken 1963 at Prestburg.
The jar was probably found in cave 1, the starting point of the most important and widely published and controversial archaeological MS find of this century. The hoard from 11 caves consists of ca. 16 intact or mainly intact scrolls and between 15,000 and 100,000 fragments from ca. 800 scrolls, containing about 600 different texts in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek. The discovery was a break-through for the study of Judaism and of the Old Testament with texts about 1000 years older than the MSS of the 10th c. previously known.

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Tel Dan Stele

•October 30, 2007 • Leave a Comment
www.bible-history.com/…/tel-dan-stele.html
 

Tel Dan Stele

 
  The “House of David” is inscribed on this victory stele excavated at Tel Dan, in the Galilee region of Israel. It is dated from the 9th Century BC. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem. The Tel Dan Stele is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology, it mentions the House of David in an Inscription. With this important discovery it is clear that King David is a real figure in ancient history, as Jesus confirmed.Material – Basalt Stone Stele
Israel Period of the Kings
Date: 858-824 BC
Language: Aramaic
Height: 32 cm
Width: 22 cm
Depth:
Tel Dan, Galilee
Excavated by: Avraham Biran 1994
Location: Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs Excerpt

The Aramaic Stele

Fragments of the Aramaic stele

Fragments of a large inscribed basalt stele were found in the square located in front of the Israelite city gate complex. The largest of these fragments measures 32 x 22 cm. and, of the original inscription, thirteen lines have been partially preserved. The language is ancient Aramaic.

The 9th century BCE and the beginning of the 8th century BCE were marked by military conflicts between the kings of Israel and the expanding kingdom of Aram-Damascus. (1 Kings 15:20) Thus the stele was erected by one of the Aramean kings of Damascus who captured Dan – although which king cannot be ascertained as yet. It is probable that in lines 7-8 two kings of Israel and Judah, who ruled at the same time, are mentioned: Jehoram, king of Israel and Ahaziah, king of Judah, referred to as a king of the House of David. These two kings were allies and were defeated by Hazael, king of Aram-Damascus. (2 Kings 8:7-15, 28; 9:24-29; 2 Chronicles 22:5)

The stele describing Hazael’s victory over his enemies was, in all probability, erected by him when he conquered Dan in the mid-9th century BCE. It is reasonable to assume that Jehoash, king of Israel, who fought the Arameans three times and defeated them (2 Kings 13:25) recovering territories previously lost, including the city of Dan, symbolically smashed the stele erected there by Hazael, king of Aram-Damascus.

Although the broken stele raises serious historical problems, it is one of the most important written finds in Israel and the first non-biblical text which mentions the House of David by name. It is hoped that more fragments of this unique stele will be uncovered in future excavatio

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PONTIUS PILATE INSCRIPTION

•October 30, 2007 • 1 Comment
         

Pilate Inscription

On the face is a monumental inscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from “Pontius Pilate,
http://www.bible-history.com/empires/pilate.html – 26k – CachedSimilar pages

Bible History Online – Pilate Inscription (Biblical Archaeology)

The Pilate Inscription is the only known occurrence of the name Pontius Pilate in The Pontius Pilate Inscription is important in the study of Biblical
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Pilate Inscription

The Pilate Inscription Bond, Helen K. Pontius Pilate in History and Interpretation. “A New Inscription Which Mentions Pilate as ‘Prefect.
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Pontius Pilate – Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pontius Pilate’s title was traditionally thought to have been procurator. Tacitus speaks of him as such. However, an inscription on a limestone block
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Pilate Inscription

 

Pilate Inscription

 
  In June 1961 Italian archaeologists led by Dr. Frova were excavating an ancient Roman theater near Caesarea Maritima and uncovered this interesting limestone block. On the face is aninscription which is part of a larger dedication to Tiberius Caesar which clearly says that it was from “Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Judea.”It reads like this:Line One: TIBERIEUM,
Line Two: (PON) TIUS
Line Three: (PRAEF) ECTUS IUDA (EAE)
The Pilate Inscription is the only known occurrence of the name Pontius Pilate in any ancient inscription. Visitors to the Caesarea theater today see a replica, the original is in the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. There have been a few bronze coins found that were struck form 29-32 AD by Pontius Pilate.

The Pontius Pilate Inscription is important in the study of Biblical Archaeology and confirms the Scriptures found in the Bible as historical.

Caesarea, Israel
New Testament Period
Pontius Pilate, (26-37 AD)
Limestone, inscribed
82.0 cm H, 65.0 cm W
Building Dedication
4 Lines of Writing (Latin)
Date of Discovery: 1961
Israel Museum (Jerusalem)
AE 1963 no. 104

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CAESAR DENARIUS

•October 30, 2007 • Leave a Comment
 
         
 
         
 

Luke 20: 2425 Shew me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar’s. And He said to them, “Then render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s, and to God the things that are God’s.”

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Shew me a penny. Whose image and superscription hath it? They answered and said, Caesar’s.a penny. See Mt 18:28 20:2

image. This was the head of the emperor; the superscription his titles. Julius Caesar was the first who caused his image to be struck on the Roman coin; and Tiberius was emperor at this time. This therefore was a denarius of Caesar, [dinarah kesar-anah,] as it is termed in the Talmud; and consequently this was respecting the tribute required by the Roman government.

Caesar’s. 22 2:1 3:1 23:2 Ac 11:28 25:8-12 26:32 Php 4:22

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Sennacherib’s Prism Reveals King Hezekiah

•October 30, 2007 • 1 Comment
   
 


 
This six-sided hexagonal clay prism, commonly known as the Taylor Prism, was discovered among the ruins of Nineveh, the ancient capital of the Assyrian Empire. It contains the Annals of Sennacherib himself, the Assyrian king who had besieged Jerusalem in 701 BC during the reign of king Hezekiah. On the prism Sennacherib boasts that he shut up “Hezekiah the Judahite” within Jerusalem his own royal city “like a caged bird.” This prism is among the three accounts discovered so far which have been left by the Assyrian monarch of his campaign against Israel and Judah.The Taylor Prism was discovered among the ruins of ancient Nineveh by Colonel Taylor in 1830. Of all Assyrian documents that have come down to us not one is in better preservation than this.

Henry Austen Layard later found the Royal Palace of Sennacherib and many other archaeological treasures. The work of Layard was continued here and at other sites until 1847. In 1849 he began another exploring expedition which lasted three years. Layard had become popular in Britain as he gave persuasive scholarly accounts of his discoveries to the public, making remarkable comparisons with the Bible.

In 1878 Hormuzd Rassam (Assyrian Archaeologist 1826-1910) had resumed work for the British Museum at Nineveh after Henry Austen Layard’s excavations in 1845 for the British Museum at the Mounds of Nimrud. There were clay tablets discovered in great quantities: and Rassam, without knowing it, unearthed at Nineveh a portion of the famous library of Assurbanipal (688-26 B. C.).

The palace at Nineveh was decorated with massive stone wall panels depicting the siege of Lachish. These can be seen today at the Lachish Gallery in the British Museum.

In 1919 J. H. Breasted purchased the Taylor Prism for the Oriental Institute in Chicago from a Baghdad antiquities dealer

Specifications of the Prism Language: Akkadian (Cuneiform) Medium: Clay prism Dimensions: 38cm high, 13.3cm wide (top) 14cm wide (bottom) the width of the six panels are: 8, 7.6, 7.52, 8, 7.3, 7.7cm the hole at the top is 2.3cm the hole at the bottom is 2.5cm Length of Writing: 6 columns; 500 lines Approximate Date: 689 BCE Dates of Sennacherib’s reign: 701–681 BCE Biblical Reference: 2 Kings 18:13-19:37; Isaiah 36:1-37:38 Location of Discovery: mound at Kuyunjik (in modern Mosul, Iraq) Current Location: Oriental Institute Chicago, Illinois Inventory Number: A2793.

Who was Sennacherib?

Sennacherib in Akkadian means “Sin (moon god) has multiplied the brothers”. Sennacherib was one of the most powerful monarchs in the history of the world. He was king of Assyria, and the son of Sargon. He inherited the vast empire from his father, and ascended the throne on the twelfth day of Ab (July-August), 705 B.C. Sennacherib was the king who had besieged Jerusalem during the reign of king Hezekiah of Judah.

The Account Recorded on the Prism

“On the six inscribed sides of this clay prism, King Sennacherib recorded eight military campaigns undertaken against various peoples who refused to submit to Assyrian domination. In all instances, he claims to have been victorious. As part of the third campaign, he besieged Jerusalem and imposed heavy tribute on Hezekiah, King of Judah-a story also related in the Bible, where Sennacherib is said to have been defeated by “the angel of the Lord,” who slew 185,000 Assyrian soldiers (II Kings 18-19).” – Oriental Institute

Here is an exact rendering of Sennacheribs haughty introductory declaration about himself and his third campaign:

Sennacherib, the great king, the mighty king, king of the world, king of Assyria, king of the four quarters, the wise shepherd, favorite of the great gods, guardian of right, lover of justice, who lends support, who comes to the aid of the destitute, who performs pious acts, perfect hero, mighty man, first among all princes, the powerful one who consumes the insubmissive, who strikes the wicked with the thunderbolt; the god Assur, the great mountain, an unrivaled kinship has entrusted to me, and above all those who dwell in palaces, has made powerful my weapons; from the upper sea of the setting sun to the lower sea of the rising sun, he has brought the black-headed people in submission at my feet; and mighty kings feared my warfare, leaving their homes and flying alone, like the sidinnu, the bird of the cave, to some inaccessible place…

In my third campaign, I went against the Hittite-land. Lulê, king of Sidon, the terrifying splendor of my sovereignty overcame him, and far off into the midst of the sea he fled. There he died. Great Sidon, Little Sidon, Bît-Zitti, Zaribtu, Mahalliba, Ushu, Akzib, Akko, his strong, walled cities, where there were fodder and drink, for his garrisons, the terrors of the weapon of Assur, my lord, overpowered them and they bowed in submission at my feet. I seated Tuba’lu on the royal throne over them, and tribute, gifts for my majesty, I imposed upon him for all time, without ceasing.

From Menachem, the Shamsimurunite, Tuba’lu the Sidonite, Abdi-liti the Arvadite, Uru-milki the Gublite, Mitinti the Ashdodite Budu-ilu the Beth Ammonite, Kammusu-nadbi the Moabite, Malik-rammu the Edomite, kings of Amurru, all of them, numerous presents as their heavy tribute, they brought before me for the fourth time, and kissed my feet.

But Sidka, the king of Ashkelon, who had not submitted to my yoke, the gods of his father’s house, himself, his wife, his sons, his daughters, his brothers, the seed of his paternal house, I tore away and brought to Assyria. Sharru-lu-dari, son of Rukibti, their former king, I set over the people of Ashkelon, and I imposed upon him the payment of tribute: presents to my majesty. He accepted my yoke. In the course of my campaign, Beth-Dagon, Joppa, Banaibarka, Asuru, cities of Sidka, who had not speedily bowed in submission at my feet, I besieged, I conquered, I carried off their spoil.

The officials, nobles, and people of Ekron, who had thrown Padi their king—bound by oath and curse of Assyria— into fetters of iron and had given him over to Hezekiah, the Judahite—he kept him in confinement like an enemy— their heart became afraid, and they called upon the Egyptian kings, the bowmen, chariots and horses of the king of Meluhha [Ethiopia], a countless host, and these came to their aid. In the neighborhood of Eltekeh, their ranks being drawn up before me, they offered battle. With the aid of Assur, my lord, I fought with them and brought about their defeat. The Egyptian charioteers and princes, together with the Ethiopian king’s charioteers, my hands captured alive in the midst of the battle. Eltekeh and Timnah I besieged, I captured, and I took away their spoil.

I approached Ekron and slew the governors and nobles who had rebelled, and hung their bodies on stakes around the city. The inhabitants who rebelled and treated (Assyria) lightly I counted as spoil. The rest of them, who were not guilty of rebellion and contempt, for whom there was no punishment, I declared their pardon. Padi, their king, I brought out to Jerusalem, set him on the royal throne over them, and imposed upon him my royal tribute.

As for Hezekiah the Judahite, who did not submit to my yoke: forty-six of his strong, walled cities, as well as the small towns in their area, which were without number, by levelling with battering-rams and by bringing up seige-engines, and by attacking and storming on foot, by mines, tunnels, and breeches, I besieged and took them. 200,150 people, great and small, male and female, horses, mules, asses, camels, cattle and sheep without number, I brought away from them and counted as spoil. (Hezekiah) himself, like a caged bird I shut up in Jerusalem, his royal city. I threw up earthworks against him— the one coming out of the city-gate, I turned back to his misery. His cities, which I had despoiled, I cut off from his land, and to Mitinti, king of Ashdod, Padi, king of Ekron, and Silli-bêl, king of Gaza, I gave (them). And thus I diminished his land. I added to the former tribute, and I laid upon him the surrender of their land and imposts—gifts for my majesty. As for Hezekiah, the terrifying splendor of my majesty overcame him, and the Arabs and his mercenary troops which he had brought in to strengthen Jerusalem, his royal city, deserted him. In addition to the thirty talents of gold and eight hundred talents of silver, gems, antimony, jewels, large carnelians, ivory-inlaid couches, ivory-inlaid chairs, elephant hides, elephant tusks, ebony, boxwood, all kinds of valuable treasures, as well as his daughters, his harem, his male and female musicians, which he had brought after me to Nineveh, my royal city. To pay tribute and to accept servitude, he dispatched his messengers.

(Complete translations of the records of Sennacherib can be found in Daniel D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, vol. 2, and in James Pritchard’s Ancient Near Eastern Texts (1950).)

The Biblical Comparison

The best way to see the accuracy of the Biblical account with this record on Sennacherib’s Prism is to compare 2 Kings 18:13-19:37 and Isaiah 36:1-37:38 with the last paragraph on the above account.

A Mystery of History

After comparing the Biblical account with that of the Sennacherib Prism one Scripture stands out above all of the rest, which remains a mystery even to today. It is also recorded in the Book of Kings along with the Book of Isaiah. It is the part where Isaiah gives a Word from the Lord just after King Hezekiah’s awesome prayer.

Isa 37:33-38 “Therefore thus says the LORD concerning the king of Assyria: ‘He shall not come into this city, Nor shoot an arrow there, Nor come before it with shield, Nor build a siege mound against it. By the way that he came, By the same shall he return; And he shall not come into this city,’ Says the LORD. ‘For I will defend this city, to save it For My own sake and for My servant David’s sake.'” Then the angel of the LORD went out, and killed in the camp of the Assyrians one hundred and eighty-five thousand; and when people arose early in the morning, there were the corpses–all dead. So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed and went away, returned home, and remained at Nineveh.”

This miracle cannot be substantiated by archaeological discoveries for a reason of which only God knows, but all of the pieces seem to fit together because even today no one has determined exactly why Sennacherib did not even enter Jerusalem with his great army once it was besieged. After reading his campaigns on his Prism it would seem that this was the thing he had intended to do, and with all anxiety.

Another revealing fact is this: At this point in time there was an abrupt discontinuance of Assyria’s western invasions. Professor George Rawlinson of Oxford noted:

Sennacherib during his later years made no expedition further westward than Cilicia; nor were the Assyrian designs against Southern Syria and Egypt resumed till toward the close of the reign of Esarhaddon (Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament, 1873, p. 145).

Herodotus and Josephus on Sennacherib’s Campaigns

Herodotus, the father of ancient Greek history, records what is probably an Egyptian legend (that grew out of this historical event); he suggests that Sennacherib’s fighting force was greatly reduced when in one night, a plague of field mice gnawed the quivers, bowstrings, and shield-straps of his soldiers, thus making them suddenly vulnerable to their enemies (cf. Edersheim, Bible History, VII, p.155).

Sennacherib Murdered by his own sons.

One interesting note worth investigating further is where the Bible records what happened to Sennacherib once he had returned to Nineveh, without his great army.

In reviewing the background of this situation King Hezekiah was intensely concerned about the armies of the Assyrian king Sennacherib. He sent his servants to inquire of the prophet Isaiah just exactly what the Lord was saying that he needed to do. Once his servants had found Isaiah, he said:

2 Kings 19:6-7 “And Isaiah said to them, “Thus you shall say to your master, ‘Thus says the LORD: “Do not be afraid of the words which you have heard, with which the servants of the king of Assyria have blasphemed Me. Surely I will send a spirit upon him, and he shall hear a rumor and return to his own land; and I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land.”

The book of Kings goes on to record what had actually happened to Sennacherib once he returned to his capital, Nineveh.

2 Kings 19:37: “Now it came to pass, as he (Sennacherib) was worshiping in the temple of Nisroch his god, that his sons Adrammelech and Sharezer struck him down with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Ararat. Then Esarhaddon his son reigned in his place.”

This exact same account was unearthed, having been recorded on a clay tablet, now in the British Museum.

‘On the twentieth day of the month Tebet Sennacherib king of Assyria his son slew him in rebellion… Esarhaddon his son sat on the throne of Assyria.’

This clay tablet along with 2 Kings 19:37 was the last recorded mention of Sennacherib, the powerful Assyrian monarch who once ruled the worl

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